Ten pointers toward a peace process in Ex-Yugoslavia

By Johan Galtung

July 7, 1993

1. A Conference on Security and Cooperation in Southeast Europe, CSCSEE, UN and OSCE sponsored, modeled on Helsinki, in addition to the London/Geneva conference.  All concerned parties (also sub-, super- and non-state) to be invited, with all relevant themes on the agenda; possibly lasting 3-5 years.  Outsiders to the region should be present as observers with right to speak, there being no disinterested outside states. A possible long term goal: A Southeast European Confederation.

2. CSCSEE Working Groups on priority areas to consider:
– Bosnia-Herzegovina as a tri- or bi-partite confederation; with the right to self-determination after some time.
– Kosovo/a s a bipartite confederation with the right of self-determination after some tim, respecting Serbian history;
– Macedonia: a Macedonian confederation should not be ruled out, but can only emerge within a broader setting ([1]) above.
– ex-Yugoslavia: as long-term goal, a confederation this time.

3. Increase UNPROFOR by an order of 10+, with 50% women, creating a dense blue carpet to supervise truces and stabilize the situation. Soldiers must be adequately briefed and trained as conflict facilitators, working with possible civilian peacekeeping components.  Avoid big power participation. [Read more…]

Advertisements

Økonomiske sanktioner: årsager, virkninger og Jugoslavien

By Håkan Wiberg
Formodentlig midt-1993
Skrevet på dansk af forfatteren selv

I 432 f.v.t. nægtede Perikles produkter fra Megara adgang til markedet i Athen, fordi Megara havde kidnappet tre kvinder og prøvede at annektere territorium. Disse økonomiske sanktioner bidrog til begyndelsen af den peloponesiske krig.

Økonomiske sanktioner imod stater opfylder normalt ikke deres deklarerede formål. Hvor stærk empirisk hjemmel er der for denne påstand? Beror den manglende succes på formålene – eller er det sanktionerne som er ineffektive eller sågar modproduktive? [Read more…]